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by Eric J. Lyman

ROME Francisco Lindor Yankees Jersey , March 7 (Xinhua) -- In the latest signal of the shifting landscape of international tax policies, Italy has opened up a high-profile 227.5 million euros (248 million U.S. dollars) tax probe into California-based Internet search giant Google.

Revenue for Google, along with a host of other, mostly U.S.-based, tech giants like Facebook, Amazon, Apple and eBay Edwin Encarnacion Yankees Jersey , is notoriously hard to track across boarders. As they operate internationally, it is relatively easy for the companies to make it appear that they generate more of their income in countries with low tax rates, and less of it in high-tax countries, including Italy.

Based on at least some interpretations of existing tax laws, experts said, these practices have some legal standing.

"Most countries are still trying to confront this 21st century problem with tax laws dating back 30 to 50 years," Oliviero Fiorini Joe Carter Yankees Jersey , an economic analyst with ABS Securities in Milan, told Xinhua. "These are not cases of a company producing a product on one country and driving it across a boarder to sell it in another. Tax laws are evolving to confront these new problems."

In the investigation against Google, which is a subsidiary of Alphabet Inc., prosecutors and tax officials charge Google underpaid taxes on royalties by an estimated 200 million euros between 2009 and 2013, and that it failed to declare an additional 100 million euros in revenue from its Italian operations. That revenue would have yielded a tax bill of 27.5 million euros.

In Italy, it is not possible to conduct a criminal investigation into alleged wrongdoing by a company or other entity; it must focus on specific individuals.

So Italy has named five Google officials in its probe: Google-Ireland lawyers John Thomas Herlihy, Graham Law and Ronan Aubyn Harris Ricky Vaughn Jersey , John Kent Walker who worked at Google-Italia from 2010 to 2012, and Daniel Lawrence Martinelli, Google-Italia's current president, who took over in 2012.

Google is not unique in Italy. In December, Apple settled a similar tax investigation with Italian officials, agreeing to pay 318 million euros in back taxes.

According to Francesco Brandi, a former tax agency official and a law professor at La Sapienza University in Rome Satchel Paige Jersey , the cases against Apple and Google have little to do with any specific missteps the companies took and more to do with cash-strapped governments finally cracking down on what has become a common practice among big multinational Internet companies.

"All multinationals should be paying attention to what is happening in Italy and elsewhere in Europe," Brandi said. "This kind of investigation will only become more common over time."


SAN FRANCISCO, June 17 (Xinhua) -- A new analysis indicates that our sun almost certain had a twin, though not an identical one, when it was born 4.5 billion years ago.

Actually, the analysis by a theoretical physicist from the University of California, Berkeley Jim Thome Jersey , and a radio astronomer from the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory at Harvard University provides new evidence that all stars are born in pairs.

The new assertion is based on a radio survey of a giant molecular cloud filled with recently formed stars in the constellation Perseus, and a mathematical model that can explain the Perseus observations only if all sunlike stars are born with a companion.

Many stars have companions, including our nearest neighbor, Alpha Centauri, a triplet system. Astronomers have long sought an explanation.

Astonomers have searched for a companion to our sun, a star dubbed Nemesis because it was supposed to have kicked an asteroid into Earth's orbit that collided with our planet and exterminated the dinosaurs. It has never been found.

""We are saying, yes Manny Ramirez Jersey , there probably was a Nemesis, a long time ago."" noted Steven Stahler, a University of California, Berkeley, research astronomer and co-author of a paper already accepted for publication in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

""We ran a series of statistical models to see if we could account for the relative populations of young single stars and binaries of all separations in the Perseus molecular cloud, and the only model that could reproduce the data was one in which all stars form initially as wide binaries. These systems then either shrink or break apart within a million years,"" said Stahler.

In this study Eddie Robinson Jersey , ""wide"" means that the two stars are separated by more than 500 astronomical units, or AU, where one astronomical unit is the average distance between the sun and Earth, namely 93 million miles, or 150 million kilometers. A wide binary companion to our sun would have been 17 times farther from the sun than its most distant planet today, Neptune.

Based on this model, the sun's sibling most likely escaped and mixed with all the other stars in our region of the Milky Way galaxy Bob Feller Jersey , never to be seen again.

""The idea that many stars form with a companion has been suggested before, but the question is: how many?"" first author Sarah Sadavoy, a NASA Hubble fellow at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, was quoted as saying in a news release from UC Berkeley. ""Based on our simple model, we say that nearly all stars form with a companion. The Perseus cloud is generally considered a typical low-mass star-forming region, but our model needs to be checked in other clouds.""

Astronomers have speculated about the origins of binary and mulitple star systems for hundreds of years, and in recent years have created computer simulations of collapsing masses of gas to understand how they condense under gravity into stars Larry Doby Jersey , and of the interaction of many young stars recently freed from their gas clouds. Several years ago, one such computer simulation by Pavel Kroupa of the University of Bonn led him to conclude that all stars are born as binaries.

Yet direct evidence has been scarce. . Wholesale Jerseys Online Wholesale Jerseys China Wholesale Hoodie Wholesale Jerseys Free Shipping Wholesale NHL Jerseys Wholesale NFL Hats Wholesale Shirts Cheap NBA Jerseys Cheap Jerseys China Cheap Jerseys China

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